Nepal is not only the home of the high mountains but rich in diverse wildlife as well. Nepal is extremely blessed with natural beauties including diverse flora and fauna. Nepal has a variety of wildlife environments across the country according to the climate and geographical structure. Nepal is a Hubspot for the biodiversity and natural inhabitants despite small areas between two giant countries India and China. Nepal is divided into three geographical regions, the Himalayan region, the Hilly region, and the Terai Region. They are classified according to climatic conditions, topography, geographical structure, land, and terrain. Mountains region is the uppermost part of the country which is mostly covered with the high mountains and giant hills. The Hilly region is the middle part of Nepal and the climate is best for the human settlement and small hills and few plane land and dense forest are available in this region. Terai is the lower belt of Nepal and it’s totally plain land for cultivation and farming including a good habitat for the numerous wildlife and vegetation.
Nepal has a keen interest in preserving and protecting endangered, vulnerable, and rare wildlife and its inhabitants. Which ultimately preserves the natural environment in its original form which is really necessary for wildlife conservation. As a result, Nepal has established several National Parks, Conservation/Protection Area, and Wildlife reserves to preserve and protect the diverse flora and fauna. In the context of Nepal, these protected s and reserve areas are led by the Military of Nepal and they operate regular patrols, and safety, security and stop poaching of wild animals.
Nepal has more than 185 species of mammals across the country. Among the several animals, the most notable mammals are Bengal Fox, Bengal Tiger, Clouded Leopard, Corsac Fox, One-horned Rhinoceros, Asiatic Elephant, Marbled Cat, Indian Pangolin, Chinese Pangolin, Red Panda, Snow Leopard, Tibetan fox, Pablo, and Tibetan wolf.
Among all these, Royal Bengal Tiger is the main attraction of the entire wildlife. The interesting fact about it is, Nepal has doubled the number of Tigers in the last 10 years, according to the last census 2018. It was 235 in total. This also shows that the land, topography, environment, climate, and wildlife is much favorable and suitable for the growth, development, protection, and preservation of wildlife in Nepal.
Snow leopard and Red panda are endangered and at risk of extinction. Wild buffalo are found in Koshi Tappu wildlife reserve. Gangetic dolphins are found in the freshwater of Narayani and Karnali rivers. Red Panda is rarely seen because of their shy nature and mostly found in Kanchenjunga and Langtang National Park. Some of the other famous mammals like Blue Sheep, Himalayan Tahr, Wild Yak, and Musk Deer are mostly found in the mountain regions of Nepal.
There are around 900 species of birds found across the country and 30 species are globally threatened birds which are found in Nepal. The amazing thing is, half of the species can be seen inside Kathmandu valley. The valley is basically covered with Shivapuri National Park, Godawori, and Nagarjun forest from northeast, south, and west respectively. Koshi Tappu Wildlife is the home of a large number of migratory birds. Danphe is the National bird of Nepal, which is found in the Himalayan zone.
Also, Nepal has more than 100 species of reptiles, including indigenous crocodiles in major freshwater rivers, which is also called a fish-eating gharial with a long narrow snout and Marsh Mugger which is totally flesh-eating and attracts whatever they see. The major snakes are Cobra, Kraits, Vipers, and Python. Some are venomous and some are non-venomous. Chitwan and Bardia National parks are more famous for more reptiles in Nepal.
Similarly, Nepal has 43 species of amphibians, more than 185 species of freshwater fish, 635 species of butterflies, which are abundantly found across the country.